Studying mass social phenomena, statistics in their conclusions rely on numerical data obtained in specific conditions of place and time. The results of statistical observation are recorded primarily in the form of primary absolute values.
To characterize the population as a whole or its individual parts, generalizing statistical indicators are calculated.
Absolute value - this is the simplest statistical indicator characterizing either the number of units of a population (group) or the sum of the values of a characteristic for a group.
Absolute values are the result of summing up other values. Sometimes the absolute value is the difference of two other absolute values (profit = revenue - cost).
In statistics, all absolute values are named, measured in specific units, and, unlike the mathematical concept of an absolute value, can be either positive or negative (losses, losses, losses, etc.).
Consider the types of units of measurement of absolute values.
Natural units can be simple (tons, pieces, meters, liters) and complex, which are a combination of several different quantities (railway freight turnover is expressed in ton-kilometers, electricity production - in kilowatt-hours). Natural units of measure characterize either the physical properties of the units of the population, or their number.
In statistics, absolute indicators expressed in units of measure (for example, different types of fuel are converted to conventional fuel). These units are used when it is necessary to determine the total volumes of products, raw materials, fuel for products close to consumer use. In this case, the so-called the representative product and using conversion factors convert the volumes of all other types of products into the volume of the representative product. The representative product selects the product with the highest volume of production or a traditional product.
Conversion factors are calculated based on a certain important product characteristic (see table 6).
Table 6. Recalculation of detergents
in conditional soap 40% fat
|Types of detergents||Issue, thousand tons||Fat content,%||Conversion factor||Issue of soap, thousand tons|
|Soap farms. Soap toilet. Powder Washing Paste||40,0 70,0 20,0 50,0||1,0 1,75 0,5 1,25|
Value units Measurements are used, for example, to express the volume of heterogeneous production in value (money) form - rubles. When using cost meters, price changes over time are taken into account. This disadvantage of cost meters is overcome by the use of "constant" or "comparable" prices of the same period. In addition, value units are used to measure all macro indicators.
In labor units (man-days, man-hours) take into account the total cost of labor in the enterprise, the complexity of individual operations.
Person - days = Number of workers (workers) x Time in days
Man - hours = Number of workers x Time in hours
Relative value in statistics, it is a generalizing indicator that gives a numerical measure of the ratio of two compared absolute values. Since many absolute values are interconnected, the relative values of one type in some cases can be determined through the relative values of another type. Relative values can also be calculated by comparing averages and other statistical indicators.
The main condition for the correct calculation of the relative value is the comparability of the compared indicators and the presence of real relationships between the studied phenomena. Thus, according to the method of obtaining relative indicators, the derivatives are always determined in the form of coefficients, percent, ppm, prodecimilla, etc. However, it must be remembered that a concrete, and sometimes rather complex, unit of measure can be attributed to these dimensionless indicators in form. So, for example, relative indicators of the natural movement of the population, such as fertility or mortality rates, calculated in ppm (‰), show the number of births or deaths per year per 1,000 people of the average annual number, the relative value of the efficiency of the use of working time is the number of products per one worked man-hour, etc.
The relative value is a fraction. The denominator of the fraction is called base comparison.
If, when calculating the relative value, the comparison base is taken as 1, then the relative value is expressed by a coefficient.
If, when calculating the relative value, the comparison base is taken as 100, then the relative value is in percent.
In economic calculations, 4 relative values are most often used,
1) the relative value of the structure:
Used to characterize the structure of the population.
2) the relative value of the planned task:
Example. The company plans to raise wages this quarter by 10%
3) the relative magnitude of the plan:
|Fulfillment plan magnitude|
Salary growth plan underfulfilled by 6%
1) the relative magnitude of the dynamics (growth rate) characterizes the change in time:
The relative magnitude of the dynamics is equal to the product of the relative magnitude of the plan and the relative magnitude of the plan.
Date Added: 2016-06-13, views: 1063, ORDER WRITING WORK
Types of absolute values, their meaning
As a result of statistical observation and summaries, generalized indicators are obtained that reflect the quantitative side of the phenomena.
All indicators used in statistical practice in the form of expression classified into absolute, relative and average.
The initial form of expression of statistical indicators are absolute values. Absolute values characterize the absolute dimensions of the phenomena studied, and also give an idea of the volume of the aggregates.
Absolute value - an indicator reflecting the size of social phenomena and processes in specific conditions of place and time. It characterizes the social life of the population and the economy of the country as a whole (gross domestic product (GDP), national income, industrial production, population, etc.).
In practice, there are two types of absolute values: individual and total.
Individual values show the size of the sign of individual units of the population (for example, the weight of one person, the salary of an individual employee, the size of the deposit in a particular bank).
Total values characterize the final value of the attribute for a certain set of subjects covered by statistical observation (for example, the size of the wage fund, the total size of deposits in banks).
Absolute statistics - always named numbers, i.e. have units.
Absolute values are expressed:
at natural units (kilograms, grams, centners, units, pieces, etc.) that are used in the case of characterizing the size of one phenomenon (for example, milk sales),
at conditional units (feed units, equivalent fuel units, etc.) that are used to characterize the size of homogeneous phenomena (for example, the amount of feed in feed units),
at value units (rubles, dollars, euros, etc.) used in determining the size of heterogeneous phenomena (for example, the cost of buying a variety of food products),
at labor units (man-hours, man-days, etc.), which express the size of the costs of working time.
Types of relative quantities, methods for their calculation and form of expression
Absolute values do not always fully characterize phenomena. In order to correctly evaluate one or another absolute indicator, it is necessary to compare it with a plan or indicator relating to another period. For this, relative values are used.
Relative value - the result of dividing one absolute indicator by another, expressing the relationship between the quantitative characteristics of socio-economic phenomena and processes. The relative value can be used to judge how much the compared indicator is larger than the baseline or what proportion it is from the baseline.
When calculating relative values, the absolute indicator in the numerator is called compared (current), and located in the denominator - base comparison. AT Depending on the base of comparison, the obtained relative indicator may take the form of an expression or be a named quantity.
Distinguish the following forms of expression relative values:
coefficientif the comparison base is taken as 1,
percent, if the comparison base is taken as 100,
ppm if the comparison base is taken as 1000,
prodecymill if the comparison base is taken as 10,000.
If the relative value is obtained by dividing the opposite indicators, then it will be expressed using units of measure which reflect the ratio of the compared and basic indicators.
In content, the relative values used in practice are divided into eight varieties:
OVPZ - the relative value of the planned task,
OVVP - the relative value of the implementation of the plan,
ATS - the relative magnitude of the dynamics,
OVS - the relative value of the structure,
HVAC is the relative amount of coordination,
OVsr - the relative value of the comparison,
JVI - relative value of intensity,
ОВУЭР is the relative value of the level of economic development.
The relative magnitude of the planned target (OVPZ) represents the ratio of the value of the indicator established for the planning period to its actual value achieved behind previous period or for any other, taken as the basis of comparison.
Where is the level planned for the upcoming period.
- the level of the indicator achieved in the past (previous, base) period.
OVPZ characterizes the growth or reduction of the studied phenomenon in the planning period compared with the achieved level in the previous period.
The relative value of the implementation of the plan (OVP) represents the result of comparing the actually achieved level of an indicator with its planned level.
where, is the level of the indicator achieved in the reporting period.
ORVP characterizes the growth or reduction of the investigated phenomenon actually achieved in the reporting period, compared with the plan.
Relative Dynamics (ATS) calculated as the ratio of the current indicator to the previous or base, i.e. characterizes the change in certain phenomena over time.
ATS is called the growth rate, expressed in ratios or percentages.
The last three values are interconnected as follows:
ATS = OVPZ OVVP
This relationship is manifested only if relative values are expressed in coefficients.
ATS is calculated in a chain or basic manner. At chain calculation method each subsequent reporting level is compared with the previous level, with basic calculation method - with the first level, taken as a comparison base.
If the level of each subsequent period (Un) are compared with the level of the previous period (Un-1), then the ATS is calculated chain way.
If the level of each subsequent period (Un) are compared with the level taken as the comparison base (U0), then the ATS is defined in the base way.
Relative structure value (OVS) shows the proportion of a part of the population in its total volume:
Where fi– the number of units of a part of the population,
∑ fi- total volume of the population.
OVS expressed in coefficients or percentages and used to characterize the structure of the phenomenon.
Relative Coordination Value (HVAC) characterizes the ratio of the individual parts of the whole. At the same time, the part that has the largest share or is priority from an economic, social or other point of view is selected as the base for comparison.
Where fi - number of units i- parts of the aggregate,
fj - number of units j - parts of the aggregate.
Relative coordination values show how many times one part of the population is larger than the other, or how many units of one part are 1,10,100,1000,10000 units of the other part.
Relative value of comparison (OVSR) represents the ratio of the same absolute indicators characterizing different objects (enterprises, regions, countries, etc.), but corresponding to the same period or point in time.
The form of expression OVSr can be taken in coefficients or percent.
Relative Intensity (OVI) shows the degree of spread of the phenomenon in its inherent environment and is the result of a comparison of opposite, but in a certain way, related absolute values (population density, labor productivity, unit cost of production, etc.). It is calculated per 100, 1000, etc. units of the studied population.
A special case of a relative value of intensity isrelative value of the level of economic development (ОУУЭР), which represents the volume of production of a product per capita. This value has a unit of measurement (kilograms, centners, tons, etc. per capita).
As noted, in the process of statistical observation, reports and groupings receive data (information) about the values of certain signs of the studied population.
A specific quantitative expression of any indicators (signs) in statistics is called size. Depending on the calculation method values are divided into absolute and generalizing.
Absolute values - the initial, primary, most general form of expression of statistical indicators characterizing the volume of the population, i.e. the number of units making it up. Consequently, absolute values are total numbers taken from statistical tables without any conversion. They directly ascertain the size of social phenomena in certain conditions of time and place by the number in various specific meters (natural - kilograms, tons, meters, kilometers, liters, pieces, etc., cost - giving a monetary value to socio-economic phenomena and processes, labor - man-days and man-hours). For example, in 1996, 294,805 fires were registered in the country, as a result of which 15,877 people died, 14,372 people were injured, 77,871 buildings were destroyed, 13,008 livestock were killed, 7,529 pieces of equipment were destroyed.
An absolute value is always a named number associated with a unit of measure (crimes, victims, criminal cases, amount of damage, etc.). So, according to the results of the data summary
of the single registration of crimes, we learn that in 1997 in the country 2 397 311 crimes were registered, which were committed by 1 372 161 persons. In criminal cases, 8 million people were recognized as victims, or more than 11 trillion rubles of damage was caused.
From other sources it is known that the penitentiary system (MIS) of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation unites 742 correctional colonies, 61 educational colony for minors, 178 pre-trial detention centers and 13 prisons, which on May 15, 1997 contained 1.03 million people under investigation and sentenced to imprisonment 1.
The absolute value may also reflect the volume of part of the population. So, in 1996, for example, 316 criminal cases of banditry were instituted, 304 such cases were sent to the court, more than 1 thousand people were brought to justice. And in the five months of 1997, 124 cases of banditry were sent to the court, in which 354 people were prosecuted.
In 1997, 2066 crimes were committed by persons in prison, including 48 murders, 131 intentional infliction of grievous bodily harm, 827 escapes (97 of them are under protection), 5 actions that disorganize the work of IUT, 67 hu-liganism 2.
Or another example. According to official figures, out of 15 thousand children - annual graduates of orphaned institutions in Russia - 5 thousand fall into the dock during the year, 3 thousand become homeless and 1.5 thousand commit suicide 3.
Absolute values are very important for any scientific and practical work: for determining the size of crime in general or its individual types, for the operational management of subordinate bodies, etc. They have a number of other advantages: the relative simplicity and speed of obtaining information.
However, characterizing the sum of the values of the primary features of the object of observation, the absolute values themselves are not sufficiently indicative, convincing. They may not always be subjected to direct statistical analysis. Why-
1 See: On the state of the fight against crime and on strengthening the rule of law in the Russian Federation in modern conditions. Analytical materials / Under the general ed. P.T. Maslova. M., 1997.S. 43.
2 See: The state of crime in Russia in 1997. M., 1998.S. 31.
3 See: Russian newspaper. 1997.1 July 3.
In fact, they do not make it possible to reveal really existing laws and relationships.
It is perfectly clear that both practice and statistical science cannot be limited to the characteristics of only isolated individual properties of an object.
A deeper analysis requires measuring and characterizing the ratio of different absolute values, their changes over time, their relationship between themselves and the environment. For these purposes, statistics, like all sciences, widely uses general scientific methods of comparison, generalization, synthesis. So, for example, comparing the number of criminals both in general and for certain types of crimes over a number of years, calculating the share of each crime in their total result, we can understand the trends in the development of crime, its structure and dynamics, the fall or growth of certain types or categories of crimes, their ratio, etc., which allows us to make a conclusion that has a certain scientific and practical value.
At the same time, a comparison of absolute totals allows us to usually identify only general trends in mass processes, leaving many important aspects in the background. In addition, comparison of such indicators without preliminary conversion due to their incomparability with each other is often not possible at all. So, for example, comparing over a number of years the absolute indicators on the number of registered crimes and the population, we can judge their change, but what changes more quickly - it is very difficult to determine the population or crime from some absolute values. And the answer to this question is of scientific and practical importance, since a uniform increase in population and crime characterizes, ceteris paribus, the stability of the latter, exceeding the rate of growth of crime over the rate of population growth means its increase, a departure from the "norm", fraught with social upheavals.
Another example. We are faced with two absolute indicators reflecting the registration of crimes for 1996 in St. Petersburg (84 097) and in Moscow (87 167). The question is, in which city is crime higher and can it be concluded, on the basis of the available absolute indicators, that crime is much more widespread in Moscow than in St. Petersburg? Of course not, since these cities are significantly different from each other in terms of population. Only by comparing the converted indicators (the ratio of crimes to the number of residents in each city) can we determine this and, accordingly, answer the question posed. Similarly, it is difficult to answer the question of which absolute crime detection rate is higher for one absolute value of registered and solved crimes in several investigative units.
It is completely clear that before proceeding to the statistical analysis on the basis of the indicated information, it is advisable to bring them into a comparable form. This will require their preliminary
376 Chapter IX. Absolute and relative values and their application in legal statistics
processing: calculating the crime growth rate and population growth rate, determining for each city the number of crimes per 10 or 100 thousand people, establishing for each investigative unit the ratio of solved crimes to the number of registered crimes, etc. Only having done these transformations, we can reasonably compare the obtained indicators with each other, can we analyze them, since we have brought them in a comparable form.
Absolute values, given in a comparable form, are called in statistics generalizing indicators. General indicators They are divided into relative and average values (indicators) - Scheme 1. They give a summary, general quantitative characteristic of the level of the phenomenon or express relationships and relationships, as well as the dynamics of the phenomenon, characterize in one number the most typical, most common aspects of mass processes.
Did not find what you were looking for? Use the search: